Medication on Urinary tract infection (UTI)

   Medication on Urinary tract infection (UTI)   Overview Urinary tract infection (UTI)
A urinary tract infection (UTI) affects any component of your urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The bladder and urethra are the most commonly infected parts of the urinary tract.
Women are more likely than men to have a urinary tract infection. A bladder infection can be both painful and inconvenient. If a UTI spreads to your kidneys, though, it might have significant implications.
Antibiotics are commonly used to treat urinary tract infections. However, there are precautions you may do to lessen your chances of acquiring a UTI in the first place. Medication on Urinary tract infection (UTI)  Diagnosis  The following tests and techniques are used to detect urinary tract infections:


Urinary tract infection (UTI)


Taking a urine sample and analyzing it. A urine sample may be requested by your doctor for lab analysis to check for white blood cells, red blood cells, or germs. To avoid contamination of the sample, you may be told to clean your genital area with an antiseptic pad before collecting urine midstream.
In a lab, microorganisms from the urinary system are being grown. A urine culture is occasionally performed after a lab study of the urine. This test will inform your doctor which germs are causing your infection and which drugs will work best.  Making a picture of your urinary tract. You may undergo an ultrasound, a computed tomography (CT) scan, or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan if you have frequent infections that your doctor suspects are caused by an abnormality in your urinary tract (MRI). A contrast dye may also be used by your doctor to highlight structures in your urinary tract.
A scope is used to see inside your bladder. If you have recurring UTIs, your doctor may do a cystoscopy, which involves seeing inside your urethra and bladder with a long, thin tube with a lens (cystoscope). The cystoscope is introduced into your urethra and into your bladder.


Causes of  Urinary tract infection (UTI)
Bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and multiply in the bladder, resulting in urinary tract infections. Despite the fact that the urinary system is designed to keep such small invaders out, these defenses do not always work. Bacteria may take root and grow into a full-blown infection in the urinary tract if this happens.
The bladder and urethra are the most prevalent sites for UTIs in women.
• Bladder infection is a condition that occurs when the bladder is infected (cystitis). Escherichia coli (E. coli), a kind of bacteria typically found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is the most prevalent cause of this form of UTI. Other bacteria, on the other hand, are sometimes to blame.

Cystitis can be caused by sexual activity, but you don’t have to be sexually active to get it. Because of the short distance between the urethra and the anus, and the urethral entrance to the bladder, all women are at risk of cystitis.
• Urinary tract infection (urethritis). When GI bacteria travel from the anus to the urethra, this form of UTI develops. Sexually transmitted illnesses like herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and mycoplasma can also induce urethritis since the female urethra is so close to the vagina.

Factors that are at risk Urinary tract infection (UTI)
Urinary tract infections are prevalent in women, and many of them have many infections throughout their lives. • Female anatomy, which is a risk factor for UTIs in women. A woman’s urethra is shorter than a man’s, reducing the distance bacteria must travel to reach the bladder.
• Engaging in sexual activities. UTIs are more common in sexually active women than in non-sexually active women. Having a new sexual partner raises your risk as well.
• Some forms of birth control. Women who use diaphragms for birth control, as well as those who use spermicidal drugs, may be at a higher risk.
• Menopause. A decrease in circulating estrogen after menopause causes abnormalities in the urinary tract, making you more susceptible to infection.

Other risk factors for UTIs include:

  • Urinary tract abnormalities. Babies born with urinary tract abnormalities that don’t allow urine to leave the body normally or cause urine to back up in the urethra have an increased risk of UTIs.
  • Blockages in the urinary tract. Kidney stones or an enlarged prostate can trap urine in the bladder and increase the risk of UTIs.
  • A suppressed immune system. Diabetes and other diseases that impair the immune system — the body’s defense against germs — can increase the risk of UTIs.
  • Catheter use. People who can’t urinate on their own and use a tube (catheter) to urinate have an increased risk of UTIs. This may include people who are hospitalized, people with neurological problems that make it difficult to control their ability to urinate and people who are paralyzed.
  • A recent urinary procedure. Urinary surgery or an exam of your urinary tract that involves medical instruments can both increase your risk of developing a urinary tract infection.

Complications of Urinary tract infection (UTI)
Lower urinary tract infections rarely cause problems when treated early and correctly. A urinary tract infection, on the other hand, if left untreated, might have significant repercussions.
Recurrent infections, especially in women who have two or more UTIs in a six-month period or four or more in a year, are possible complications of a UTI.
• Acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) caused by an untreated UTI might result in permanent kidney damage.
• Pregnant women are more likely to have low-birth-weight or preterm babies.
• Recurrent urethritis causes urethral constriction (stricture) in males, which was previously associated with gonococcal urethritis.
• Sepsis, a potentially fatal infection consequence, particularly if the infection spreads up your urinary tract to your kidneys.

Prevention of Urinary tract infection (UTI)
You can lower your risk of urinary tract infections by doing the following steps:
• Drink plenty of water and other drinks. Drinking water dilutes your urine and encourages you to urinate more frequently, allowing bacteria in your urinary system to be cleared out before an illness develops.
• Consume cranberry juice. Although research on cranberry juice’s ability to prevent UTIs are inconclusive, it is unlikely to be hazardous.
• Wipe the surface from front to back. After urinating and having a bowel movement, do so to avoid bacteria from spreading from the anal region to the vagina and urethra.
• Immediately after intercourse, empty your bladder. Additionally, drink a full glass of water to aid in the flushing of bacteria.

Treatment of Urinary tract infection (UTI)

When it comes to urinary tract infections, antibiotics are usually the first line of defense. Your health condition and the type of bacteria discovered in your urine will determine which drugs are administered and for how long.
Infection that is simple

The following medications are frequently prescribed for uncomplicated UTIs:

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra, others)
Fosfomycin is a kind of antibiotic (Monurol)
Nitrofurantoin is a kind of antibiotic (Macrodantin, Macrobid)
Cephalexin is a kind of antibiotic (Keflex)

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