The Health Effects of Soot in the Niger Delta In accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO), air pollution is the most serious environmental health hazard of all environmental hazards. According to the WHO, 92 percent of the world’s population breaths substandard air because they live in areas where air pollution exceeds permissible levels. Every year, around 6.5 million fatalities around the world are attributed to poor air quality, both indoors and outdoors, making air pollution the world’s fourth-largest threat to human health, after high blood pressure, dietary concerns, and tobacco use. effects of soot on the environment,
The Health Effects of Soot in the Niger Delta
Among the most significant sources of harmful emissions are inefficient transportation systems, power plants, oil refineries, industrial facilities, domestic fuel and garbage burning, and other sources. Wildfires and sand storms are two other natural sources of pollution. Sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), particulate matter, carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds are all examples of air pollutants (VOCs). effect of black soot on human health,
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It is still a major cause of public health worry for the residents of Nigeria that the country’s air pollution situation continues to deteriorate. This is reflected in the World Health Organization’s ranking of the 20 most polluted cities in the world (based on PM10 particle concentration), in which cities in Nigeria accounted for 20% of the cities on the list. While the reduction in cigarette smoking has been welcomed for its beneficial effect on the prevention of lung cancer, the toxicity of particulate matter in Nigeria may be more virulent and debilitating than previously thought.
There is a connection here to the bad air quality that has ravaged the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, particularly as a result of the oil exploration activities that have characterized this region. The flaring and venting of natural gas by the petroleum sector is a significant environmental and public health concern in the Niger Delta. effect of black soot in rivers state environment,
Morbidities related with soot
There have been several studies that have found significant associations between air pollutants (including PM) and increased prevalence of morbidities such as lung and skin cancers, child deformities, miscarriages, cerebrospinal meningitis, bronchitis, asthma, measles, pertussis, pulmonary tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract infection, and premature deaths, among other things. how to stop soot in niger delta,
The severity of the soot is determined by the size of the particulate matter present. Particulate matter (PM) is the sum of all solid and liquid particles suspended in the air, many of which are dangerous, such as dust, pollen, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. PM can be classified into two categories: hazardous and non-hazardous. Despite the fact that particulate matter comes in a variety of sizes, PM2.5 is particularly hazardous to humans because it may easily penetrate deep into the lungs and other bodily tissues. It has a diameter of approximately 2.5 micrometres, which is approximately 30 times smaller than the normal human hair, making it relatively easy to penetrate the skin. consequences of black soot in port harcourt,
The case of the city of Port Harcourt
The current condition in Port Harcourt is characterized by a significant amount of black soot containing PM2.5 (one of the coastal cities in Nigeria). Large layers of soot have been plaguing the city of Port Harcourt since the fourth quarter of 2016 and have continued to this day. The nearly 6 million citizens of Port Harcourt are at risk of poor health repercussions as a result of this condition, particularly youngsters (due to the premature development of their respiratory organs) and the elderly. Besides complaining about the soot’s detrimental physical health effects and carcinogenicity, inhabitants of Port Harcourt have also continued to worry about the continual black coloration on their automobiles, floors, roofs, and household furniture surfaces, which has necessitated frequent cleaning. Although laboratory studies have revealed that soot is a by-product of petroleum combustion, the exact source of the soot has not been determined. In an effort to solve the problem, the Ministry of the Environment declared an emergency situation in the wake of about three months of continuous black soot emissions. In addition, three enterprises that were found to be emitting large amounts of pollution were shut down. Other actions have been taken to date, such as the seizure of illicit refineries, which are still ongoing. black soot in port harcourt pdf, /
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There are three types of solutions: solutions, mitigation, and adaptation.
Even though Nigeria has a plethora of environmental legislation, the majority of these rules remain unenforced. A clear example of industrial violations of such regulations can be found in the soot pandemic under discussion here. Another underlying reason of this issue is the failure of regulatory organizations to conduct routine monitoring and enforcement of such regulations; if such periodic checks had been carried out, the problem would have been identified and curtailed in time.
All levels of company should be required to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), which should be enforced as a statutory requirement. Additionally, as indicated by Yakubu in his study, it is advised that enterprises build an environmental management system (EMS) model for their operations. causes of black soot in port harcourt,
Additionally, it is critical for government agencies to keep the public informed and updated on environmental monitoring outcomes through the use of traditional, electronic, and social media in order to ensure that environmental risk communication is effective.
Regardless of these efforts, residents of Port Harcourt continue to struggle with black soot. Meanwhile, all involved parties should work together to limit soot emissions, and people should take simple steps to reduce the harm caused by soot. • Surfaces should be cleaned on a daily basis to prevent the formation of black soot around the house; windows and doors should be closed as much as possible to prevent the soot from filtering in; and hands should be washed often, especially before and after eating. In addition, inhabitants should bathe two to three times every day and consume fruits and vegetables as much as possible. According to research, certain foods that are high in vitamin C and E can help to clean the body system and counteract the effects of particulate matter pollution in the body by assisting in the removal of pollutants from the body. • Food should always be covered and avoided being eaten if it has been exposed to soot. • Long/protective clothing should be worn to reduce the amount of skin in contact with the soot. • A nose mask can be worn to reduce the amount of particulate matter inhaled. The Health Effects of Soot in the Niger Delta
Air pollution mitigation should be given top priority by all levels of government in Nigeria, aside from the fundamental goal of the government of providing primary necessities such as food, shelter, transportation, jobs, energy, and other basic needs to the people. Following the current strategy, “concerned stakeholders predict that managing air pollution in the Niger Delta of Nigeria will grow more problematic in the near future,” according to Ede and Edokpa in their study.
The Health Effects of Soot in the Niger Delta