Depression: Causes Types and Treatment What is mental illness? depression
Depression is a medical disease that affects mood and function.
Depressive symptoms include sadness, anxiety, and hopelessness.
The disorder can also induce cognitive, memory, gastrointestinal, and nocturnal difficulties.
A diagnosis of major depressive illness (clinical depression) indicates that you have felt sad, down, or worthless on the majority of days for at least two weeks, along with other symptoms such as sleep problems, loss of interest in activities, or appetite changes.
Depression is a medical condition that changes how you feel and how well you can do things.
Some signs of depression are feeling sad, worried, or without hope. This condition can also make it hard to think, remember, eat, or sleep. A major depressive disorder (clinical depression) diagnosis means that you have felt sad, low, or worthless most days for at least two weeks, along with other symptoms like trouble sleeping, losing interest in activities, or changing your appetite.
Depression can get worse and last longer if you don’t do anything about it. It can lead to self-harm or death in the worst cases. Depression symptoms can be helped by treatments that can be very effective.
How often does depression happen?
All over the world, people have depression. Providers of health care say that every year, about 7% of American adults have depression. More than 16% of adults in the U.S., or about 1 in 6, will have depression at some point in their lives.
What kinds of depression are there?
Clinicians divide depression into different types based on the symptoms and causes. Most of the time, it’s not clear why these things happen. They can last much longer in some people than in others for no clear reason.
Some kinds of depression are:
Major depressive disorder (MDD): Clinical depression, or major depression, has symptoms that are very strong or overwhelming and last for more than two weeks. These symptoms make it hard to go about daily life.
Bipolar depression: People with bipolar disorder have times when they are sad and times when they have a lot of energy (called “manic”). During the low time, they might feel sad, hopeless, or tired, which are all signs of depression.
Depression during and after birth is called “perinatal” depression. A lot of people call this type of depression “postpartum depression.” Perinatal depression can happen before, during, or up to a year after giving birth. The symptoms are more than just “the baby blues,” which are mild feelings of sadness, worry, or stress.
Persistent depressive disorder, also called dysthymia, is another name for PDD. PDD symptoms aren’t as bad as those of major depression. But people with PDD have signs for at least two years.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual disorder (PMS). It happens to women in the days or weeks before they start their period.
Psychotic depression: People with psychotic depression have very bad signs of depression and hallucinations or delusions. Delusions are false beliefs about things, while hallucinations involve seeing, hearing, or touching things that aren’t really there.
Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, is a type of depression that usually starts in late fall or early winter. In the spring and summer, it usually goes away.
What are the signs that someone is depressed?
Depression can change how you feel, think, and act. Some signs of depression are:
Feeling very sad, hopeless or worried.
You’re not happy about things that used to make you happy.
Getting angry or frustrated easily.
Too much or too little food.
How much you sleep changes.
Having trouble paying attention or remembering things.
Having physical problems like headaches, stomachaches, or problems with your sexuality.
Think about hurting yourself or ending your life.
What’s wrong and why
What causes depression?
Various factors can cause depression:
Brain chemistry: If the levels of chemicals in the brain aren’t right, it could lead to depression.
Because of your genes, if a family member has depression, you may be more likely to get it yourself.
Stress, the death of a loved one, upsetting events (trauma), being alone and not having anyone to talk to can all lead to depression.
Physical pain and illnesses that don’t go away can lead to depression. People who have diabetes, cancer, or Parkinson’s disease often have depression as well.
Medication: Depression can be a side effect of some medicines. Alcohol and other drugs used for fun can also cause or make depression worse.
Personality: People who find it hard to deal with stress or get overwhelmed easily may be more likely to get depressed.
Tests and Diagnosis
How do doctors diagnose depression syndrome?
Everyone gets sad or down now and then. Clinical depression, on the other hand, has more severe symptoms that last at least two weeks.
Your health care provider will ask you questions to figure out if you have clinical depression. You can fill out a questionnaire and give information about your family. Your doctor may also do an exam or order lab tests to find out if you have any other health problems.
How to handle and treat
How do you treat depression syndrome?
Depression can be bad, but it can also be treated. Some ways to treat depression are:
Self-help methods include working out regularly, getting enough sleep, and spending time with people you care about.
Counseling: Talking with a mental health professional is called counseling or psychotherapy. Your counselor helps you deal with your problems and learn how to deal with them in the future. Sometimes all you need is a short session. Some people stay in therapy longer than others.
People with mild depression or symptoms that don’t go away can feel better with the help of complementary therapy. Massage, acupuncture, hypnosis, and biofeedback are all forms of therapy that may be used.
Medication: Antidepressants are prescription drugs that can help change the chemicals in the brain that cause depression. It can take a few weeks for antidepressants to work. Some antidepressants have side effects that usually get better as time goes on. Talk to your provider if they don’t. You might do better with a different medicine.
Brain stimulation therapy: People with severe depression or depression with psychosis can benefit from brain stimulation therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and stimulation of the vagus nerve are all types of brain stimulation therapy (VNS).
Who is likely to get depressed?
Depression can happen to people of any age, gender, or situation. Each year, about 16 million Americans suffer from depression.
Depression may happen to women more often than to men. And your genes or other health problems can make it more likely that you will have at least one episode of depression in your life.
Can people avoid getting depressed?
You can avoid depression by getting enough sleep, eating well, and doing self-care activities like exercise, meditation, and yoga on a regular basis.
If you’ve already had depression, you might be more likely to get it again. Get help if you have signs of depression. With care, you can feel better faster.
Outlook / Prognosis
How will people with depression get better?
Depression can be mild or hard to deal with. And it can be short or last a long time. Help needs to be gotten right away.
If depression isn’t treated, it can:
Make you more likely to get other health problems, like dementia.
cause you to hurt yourself or die.
Return, even after you start to feel better.
What can I do to live with depression?
If you have signs of depression, you should see a doctor. They can give you a correct diagnosis, send you to a specialist, or recommend ways to treat you.
If you or someone you know is thinking about hurting or killing themselves: